Anatomy of the Shoulder
The shoulder is a ball and socket joint, formed by the bone of the upper arm (humerus), which articulates with the shoulder blade in a cavity called the glenoid fossa.
The joint relies a great deal on surrounding soft-tissue structures such as tendons, ligaments, and muscles (rotator cuff muscles) to maintain smooth motion and stability. The glenoid cavity is surrounded by a raised ridge of cartilage called the labrum that deepens the cavity and a ligamentous structure called the shoulder capsule that centers the humerus in the cavity. The biceps muscle, certain back muscles, as well as a group of muscles, called the rotator cuff all work together to stabilize the shoulder.
What are Baseball Shoulder Injuries?
Shoulder injuries in baseball players are usually associated with pitching. While this overhand throwing activity can produce great speed and distance for the ball, when performed repeatedly, can place a lot of stress on the shoulder. While pitching, the arm is thrown outward and backward to generate speed. This action forces the head of the humerus forward, stressing the surrounding ligaments and tendons. These stresses can lead to injuries, causing pain and inflammation.
What are Common Baseball Shoulder Injuries?
The common baseball injuries include:
- Tears of the labrum
- Tendonitis (inflammation of the tendons) and tears of the rotator cuff
- Tendonitis and tears of the biceps tendon
- Impingement of the rotator cuff tendons between the humeral head and glenoid
- Partial dislocation of the joint (instability)
Pain and instability of the shoulder can result in reduced throwing velocity and accuracy.
Diagnosis of Baseball Shoulder Injuries
Your doctor will assess your shoulder injury by reviewing your pain and the movements that produce it and performing a thorough physical examination. Imaging studies such as X-rays and MRIs may be ordered.
Treatments of Baseball Shoulder Injuries
Most shoulder injuries involve soft tissue structures that can be treated by a period of rest, ice application, medication and physical therapy to stretch and strengthen the muscles and ligaments, improving and maintaining range of motion. A change in throwing technique may be suggested to reduce stress on the injured shoulder.
- Shoulder Impingement
- Shoulder Labral Tear
- Frozen Shoulder
- Shoulder Instability
- Arthritis of the Shoulder
- Shoulder Fracture
- Acromioclavicular (AC) Arthritis
- Rotator Cuff Tear
- Shoulder Pain
- SLAP Tears
- Clavicle Fracture
- Fracture of the Shoulder Blade (Scapula)
- Shoulder Trauma
- Shoulder Dislocation
- Anterior Shoulder Instability
- Posterior Shoulder Instability
- Sternoclavicular Joint (SC joint)
- Overhead Athlete's Shoulder
- Subacromial Impingement Syndrome
- Glenoid Fractures
- Shoulder Disorders
- Snapping Scapula
- Proximal Humerus Fractures
- Baseball and Shoulder Injuries
- Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Osteoarthritis
- Proximal Biceps Tendinitis
- Rotator Cuff Pain
- Internal Impingement of the Shoulder
- Rotator Cuff Re-tear
- AC Joint Separation
- Shoulder Tendonitis
- Little League Shoulder
- Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder
- Rotator Cuff Calcification
- Partial Rotator Cuff Tear
- Bicep Tendon Rupture
- Proximal Biceps Tendon Rupture
- Calcification Tendinitis
- AC Joint Dislocation/Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation
- Long Head Biceps Tendon Rupture
- Shoulder Labral Tear with Instability
- Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder
- Periprosthetic Shoulder Fracture